Tag Archives: New York University

Food for thought: Teen brains and obesity

Teen brain + metabolic syndrome = Trouble

A worrisome new study in the journal Pediatrics has found that teens with metabolic syndrome (MetS)* have something in common with adults suffering from the same disease: They, too, can have brain deficiencies and cognitive difficulties.

When a group of 49 New York teens with MetS was compared with 64 normal-weight kids, the MetS teens had lower scores on tests of mental ability, arithmetic, and reading. In addition, MRIs showed that the typical MetS teen had a smaller hippocampus than his or her normal classmates–that’s the part of the brain that deals with memory formation and storage. Such changes in adults had been thought to be the result of long-term metabolic disease; the discovery of similar changes in teens was unexpected, and scary.

Are these changes permanent? Does the brain recover if a teen loses significant weight and reverses his or her metabolic syndrome? No one knows for certain as yet, but this study adds a bit more urgency to the fight against childhood obesity. As Dr. Antonio Convit writes in the study’s conclusion:

“Although obesity [alone] may not be enough to stir clinicians or even parents into action, these results in adolescents strongly argue for an early and comprehensive intervention. We propose that brain function be introduced among the parameters that need to be evaluated when considering early treatment of childhood obesity.”

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Metabolic syndrome is defined by the American Heart Association as the combination of high blood sugar, elevated blood triglycerides, reduced “good” cholesterol, abdominal obesity, and high blood pressure.

Photo by Dierk Schaefer

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Filed under Nutrition, Obesity

Early antibiotics and obesity?

An English study of more than 11,000 children has turned up an association between early antibiotic use (that is, antibiotics given to babies less than 6 months of age) and later obesity.  Interestingly, the study did not find that antibiotics given to children between the ages of 6 and 14 months increased the risk of obesity, and the effect of antibiotics on children aged 15-23 months was inconsistent.

Why would the antibiotic-obesity association be found primarily in younger babies? The authors speculate that an altered gut microbiota may be the culprit.

The germs that make up the gut microbiota (GM) are acquired at birth and shortly afterwards. By a few months of age the “core” GM is more or less set for life. An altered GM has long been associated with obesity in older children and adults (see more extended discussions in my posts here and here)–it would make sense that antibiotics given in this sensitive period of GM development would have greater impact than later on, when the GM is more stable.

The added risk of obesity from early antibiotic administration is small for any individual baby,  the study’s authors stress, but even small increases spread over an entire population can have significant public health implications.

Still, sometimes babies need antibiotics. Studies like this one highlight the unintended (but real) consequences of the overuse of a sometimes life-saving tool.

***(Photo credit: Seattleye)

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Filed under Infectious diseases, Obesity